Organic Acids, Amines, Esters & Phenols

Study of the structure, nomenclature, occurrence, synthesis and reactions of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives. The -OH group is the only group attached to a benzene ring is a phenol. Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids are a few of the important classes of organic compounds containing carbonyl group. These are highly polar molecules. Therefore, they boil at higher temperatures than the hydrocarbons and weakly polar compounds such as ethers of comparable molecular masses The -OH group of phenols allows these molecules to form hydrogen bonds with one another. An organic compound with multiple amine groups is termed a di-amine, tri-amine, tetra-amine, build on the quantity of amine groups (also called amino groups) attached to the molecule. The formula for methylene di-amine (also called diaminomethane), as an example, would be as follows: H2N-CH2-NH2. Aldehydes and ketones are the best and most significant carbonyl compounds. There are two systems of nomenclature;

  1. Common Names 
  2. IUPAC Names.

Some important methods for the preparation of aldehydes and ketones are as follows:

  1. by oxidation of alcohols
  2. by dehydrogenation of alcohols
  3. from hydrocarbons

  •  Oxidation of alcohols
  •  Dehydrogenation of alcohols
  •  Hydrocarbons
  •  Neutralization reactions

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