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18th International Conference onIndustrial Chemistry &
Water Treatment, will be organized around the theme “”
Industrial Chemistry 2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Industrial Chemistry 2019
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Industrial Chemistry is the branch of chemistry which applies physical and chemical processes both towards the transformation of raw materials into products that are of benefit to humans. Industrial chemists make use of their broad understanding of chemistry and environmental sustainability in areas like pharmaceutical companies, polymer manufacturing, petrochemical processing, food science, and manufacturing industries. The main areas of research and teaching are on the catalyst and process development, mechanical and thermal unit operations and process of chemical reaction engineering. It enables efficient production of basic, intermediate and end products. Industrial chemistry is part of the long chain in the design and manufacturing process. Industrial chemists deal with the ideas, the design, the testing, and prototyping of new industrial products. In order to design something entirely new to help solve the major problems of the world their essential skills are, in-depth knowledge and application of chemistry and creativity with chemicals. In a general sense, industrial chemists are involved in:
1.Safety and efficiency
2.Product development and innovation
4.Environment monitoring and control
5.Production plant design
- Track 1-1Food Microbiology
- Track 1-2Organic Chemistry
- Track 1-3Inorganic Chemistry
- Track 1-4Physical Chemistry
- Track 1-5Analytical Chemistry
- Track 1-6Chemical Technology
A desalination plant essentially separates saline water into two streams: one with a low concentration of dissolved salts (the fresh water stream) and the other containing the remaining dissolved salts (the concentrate or brine stream). Water desalination processes separate dissolved salts and other minerals from water. Seawater desalination has the potential to reliably produce enough potable water to support large populations located near the coast. The most common desalination methods employ reverse-osmosis in which salt water is forced through a membrane that allows water molecules to pass but blocks the molecules of salt and other minerals.
Thermal desalination uses heat, often waste heat from plants or refineries, to evaporate and condense water to purify it. The cost is very high and so it cannot be afforded by everyone who needs it, but because the desalinisation technology is improving fast, so the costs are beginning to fall, making it more affordable to countries and islands that need it.
Desalination techniques are also being developed on a much smaller scale. Portable desalination kits are a prime example. Desalination is becoming more economically viable as the technology improves. Desalination plants can be provided in a wide range of outputs to cater for small isolated communities or to contribute substantially to water supplies for large cities and even for irrigation
- Track 2-1Vacuum distillation
- Track 2-2Multi-stage flash distillation
- Track 2-3Multiple-effect distillation
- Track 2-4Reverse osmosis and Nanofiltration:Leading Pressure driven membrane processes
- Track 2-5Electrodialysis and Electrodialysis Reversal
The transition metals are the metallic elements that serve as a bridge, or transition, between the two sides of the table. They have partially filled d orbitals. Properties of transition metals 1. Metals 2. Almost all: HARD, STRONG, High m.p., b.p. 3. Conduct heat & electricity 4. Form Alloys 5. Show variable oxidation states 6. At least one of the ions & compounds colored. 7. Form paramagnetic species because of partially filed shells. Most transition metals form more than one oxidation state. Transition metals demonstrate a wide range of chemical behaviors. Some transition metals are strong reducing agents, whereas others have very low reactivity. The most abundant transition element in the Earth’s solid crust is iron, which is fourth among all elements and second (to aluminum) among metals in crustal abundance. The elements titanium, manganese, zirconium, vanadium, and chromium also have abundances in excess of 100 grams (3.5 ounces) per ton. Some of the most important and useful transition elements have very low crustal abundances—e.g., tungsten, platinum, gold, and silver.
- Track 3-1Variable oxidation state
- Track 3-2Co Ordination numbers
- Track 3-3Ligands
- Track 3-4Early and Late transition metals
Water is widely used in industry, whether it is encountered as raw water, process water or waste water. Industrial water use is closely linked to the economy of a country. As GDP increases, so will industrial water consumption. The industrial sector is the second highest user of water after agriculture. India’s annual fresh water withdrawals were about 500 billion cubic meters and the Indian industry consumed about 10 billion cubic meter of water as process water and 30 billion cubic meters as cooling water. Composition of natural waters changes constantly due to processes of oxidation and reduction, blending of waters with different compositions, temperature alterations, ion exchange, precipitation, bacterial self-purification, and other natural factors. Three main approaches may be indicated in development of water supply systems:
2.Circulating(closed type water supply)
The first approach is characterized by great expenditure of fresh water and waste water is fully directed to the hydrographic system. This approach was typical of all manufacturing industry during the first half of the twentieth century and resulted in exhaustion of a number of water sources. The system of industrial water supply includes:
• preparation of source water for use in technological processes;
• collection and treatment of industrial wastewaters with the aim of purification and further utilization in water circulation systems or their disposal in the open hydrographic network;
• industrial and drinking water supply.
- Track 4-1Disinfection of water supply
- Track 4-2Hydrographs
- Track 4-3Disposal of residual industrial waste waters
- Track 4-4Ultraviolet irradiation
- Track 4-5Hydrographic system
Geochemistry is the branch of Earth Science that applies chemical principles to deepen an understanding of the Earth system and systems of other planets. Because radioactive isotopes decay at measurable and constant rates (e.g., half-life) that are proportional to the number of radioactive atoms remaining in the sample, analysis of rocks and minerals can also provide reasonably accurate determinations of the age of the formations in which they are found. Geochemistry generally concerns the study of the distribution and cycling of elements in the crust of the earth. Just as the biochemistry of life is centered on the properties and reaction of carbon, the geochemistry of Earth's crust is centered upon silicon. Also important to geochemistry is oxygen .Oxygen is the most abundant element on Earth. Together, oxygen and silicon account for 74% of Earth's crust. The eight most common elements found on Earth, by weight, are oxygen (O), silicon (Si), aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), potassium (K), and magnesium (Mg). Except in acid or siliceous igneous rocks containing greater than 66% of silica, known as felsic rocks, quartz is not abundant in igneous rocks. In basic rocks (containing 20% of silica or less) it is rare for them to contain as much silicon, these are referred to as mafic rocks. If magnesium and iron are above average while silica is low, olivine may be expected; where silica is present in greater quantity over ferromagnesian minerals, such as augite, hornblende, enstatite or biotite, occur rather than olivine. The effects of acid rain are of great concern to geologists not only for the potential damage to the biosphere, but also because acid rain accelerates the weathering process. Precipitation of this "acid rain" adversely affects both geological and biological systems.
- Track 5-1Felsic, intermediate and mafic igneous rocks
- Track 5-2Geochemistry of trace metals in the ocean
- Track 5-3Mineral constitution
- Track 5-4Formation of minerals to molecular interactions
Catalysis is an acceleration or retardation of the rate of a chemical reaction, brought about by the addition of a substance (the catalyst ) to the reaction medium. Most chemical reactions in industry and biology are catalytic and play a role at some stage of the processing of about 80% of the goods manufactured in the, yet catalysis is a neglected subject in chemical education. Only very small amount of catalyst is needed to generate copious amounts of product. This is desirable, as many catalysts that are used industrially are very expensive. By choosing the appropriate catalyst, a particular reaction can be made to occur to the extent of practically excluding another. Many important applications of catalysis are based on selectivity of this kind. a catalyst does not affect the position of equilibrium of a chemical reaction; it affects only the rate at which equilibrium is attained.
- Track 6-1Auto Catalysts
- Track 6-2Enzymes and Biocatalysts
- Track 6-3Tandem Catalysts
Green water is caused by algae cells floating in the pond. If there is a lot of sunlight and your pond water is rich in nitrates algae will multiply rapidly. Green water is most effectively removed by using a UV Clarifier in conjunction with a filter, however sometimes you need to give things a boost by using an additional pond treatment. Algae are primitive plants that, via photosynthesis, combine water and carbon dioxide to form sugars for energy and growth. Algae produce oxygen, a useful by-product, but when sunlight is not available at night, they quickly respire. There are basically two types of pond algae:
Green Water: These single-celled organisms—which remain suspended in water—are so tiny, they pass through even the finest filter. If conditions are right, meaning there’s plenty of nutrients and sunlight, as many as five million algae cells per milliliter of pond water can be present.
String Algae (also known as “hair algae”): This filamentous species, which grows in long strands, adheres to rocks and waterfalls. They eventually tangle together, forming thick, unsightly mats that can double their weight within 24 hours.
The following are some tried-and-true methods that will not only help you treat algae, but also help prevent it –Add plants ,Water Treatments, Fish Feeding, Green Water Control: Ultraviolet (UV) Clarifiers, String Algae Control: Garden Hose, Hand, or Net, Consider water dyes to help as they block direct UV rays coming from sun. By twirling it around a bamboo cane and hauling it out you can achieve some control and there are products that will help to get rid of it.
- Track 7-1String Algae
- Track 7-2Fish Feeding
- Track 7-3Green Water Control: Ultraviolet (UV) Clarifiers
- Track 7-4Control amount of nitrates and phosphates
The principal objective of wastewater treatment is generally to allow human and industrial effluents to be disposed of without danger to human health or unacceptable damage to the natural environment. The most appropriate wastewater treatment to be applied before effluent use in agriculture is that which will produce an effluent meeting the recommended microbiological and chemical quality guidelines both at low cost and with minimal operational and maintenance requirements. There are two wastewater treatment plants namely chemical or physical treatment plant, and biological wastewater treatment plant. Biological waste treatment plants use biological matter and bacteria to break down waste matter. Physical waste treatment plants use chemical reactions as well as physical processes to treat wastewater. The following is a step by step process of how wastewater is treated:
1. Wastewater Collection-Collection system are put in place by municipal administrations, to ensure waste water is collected and directed to a central point. This water is then directed to a treatment plant using underground drainage systems or by exhauster tracks owned and operated by business people.
2. Odor Control-Wastewater contains a lot of dirty substances that cause a foul smell over time. All odor sources are contained and treated using chemicals to neutralize the foul smell producing elements.
3. Screening-Screening involves the removal of large objects for example nappies, cotton buds, plastics, diapers, rags, sanitary items, nappies, face wipes, broken bottles or bottle tops that in one way or another may damage the equipment.
4. Primary Treatment-his process involves the separation of macrobiotic solid matter from the wastewater.
5. Secondary Treatment-Also known as the activated sludge process, the secondary treatment stage involves adding seed sludge to the wastewater to ensure that is broken down further.
7. Tertiary treatment- The tertiary treatment stage has the ability to remove up to 99 percent of the impurities from the wastewater. This produces effluent water that is close to drinking water quality.
- Track 8-1Phase separation
- Track 8-2Secondary treatment and Activated Sludge
Pyrolysis is a thermochemical treatment, which can be applied to any organic (carbon-based) product. In this treatment, material is exposed to high temperature, and in the absence of oxygen goes through chemical and physical separation into different molecules. Pyrolysis is also known as thermal cracking, cracking, thermolysis, de polymerization, etc. Simplest example of pyrolysis is food cooking. When you cook food the temperature of food increases leading to higher molecular vibrations and breakdown of larger complex molecules into smaller and simple molecules. After cooking larger food molecules are pyrolyzed into smaller in simpler molecules which are easy to digest. Pyrolysis can be performed at relatively small scale and at remote locations which enhance energy density of the biomass resource and reduce transport and handling costs. Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products.
- Track 9-1Ethylene production
- Track 9-2Charcoal, Bio coal and Bio char
- Track 9-3Thermal Decomposition
Petro chemistry is an area of chemistry that studies the transformation of petroleum and natural gas into useful products and raw materials for chemical products. Main ingredients of this fossil raw material sources are especially aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, which are processed in petrochemical plants. Over millions of years, natural changes in organic materials have produced petroleum which has accumulated under the earth’s surface. Petroleum rich areas are generally found in regions that support retention, such as porous sandstones. Crude oils are naturally occurring liquids made up of various hydrocarbon compounds that differ in appearance and composition. Average composition rates are 84% carbon, 14% hydrogen, 1%-3% sulphur, and less than 1% each of nitrogen, oxygen, metals and salts. Depending on the sulphur content crude oils are either categorized as sweet or sour. A process called fractional distillation separates crude oil into various segments. Fractions at the top have lower boiling points than fractions at the bottom. The bottom fractions are heavy, and are thus "cracked" into lighter and more useful products. The global demand for petrochemical products continuously rises .One of the major concerning issues in today's world is the dependence of the modern society on oil and gas and various other petroleum products. Besides this, there are problems relating to the increasing scarcity of workable hydrocarbon deposits.
- Track 10-1Basics of crude oil
- Track 10-2Methods used in Petroleum Geology
- Track 10-3Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
- Track 10-4Pipelines & Transportation
- Track 10-5Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery
Electrochemistry is defined as the branch of chemistry that examines the phenomena resulting from combined chemical and electrical effects that cause electrons to move. This movement of electrons is called electricity, which can be generated by movements of electrons from one element to another in a reaction known as an oxidation- reduction ("redox") reaction. A reaction is classified as oxidation or reduction depending on the direction of electron transfer. The principles of cells are used to make electrical batteries. In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores chemical energy and makes it available in an electrical form. Electrochemistry is also vital in a wide range of important technological applications. For example, batteries are important not only in storing energy for mobile devices and vehicles, but also for load leveling to enable the use of renewable energy conversion technologies. This field covers -
Electrolytic processes - Reactions in which chemical changes occur on the passage of an electrical current.
Galvanic or voltaic processes - Chemical reactions that results in the production of electrical energy.
- Track 11-1Redox reaction:Oxidation and Reduction reactions
- Track 11-2Voltaic Cells-Galvanic Cells
- Track 11-3Standard electrode potential
- Track 11-4Gibbs Free Energy from EMF
Plasma is a hot ionized gas consisting of approximately equal numbers of positively charged ions and negatively charged electrons. Plasma Chemistry deals with chemi-ionization kinetics, elementary chemical processes, and kinetics in non-equilibrium or quasi-equilibrium plasma, and heterogeneous reactions in plasmas of moderate pressure. Plasma is a gas that has been energized to the point that some of the electrons break free from, but travel with, their nucleus. Gases can become plasmas in several ways, but all include pumping the gas with energy. Here are 10 examples of forms of plasma: lightning, aurorae, the excited low-pressure gas inside neon signs and fluorescent lights, solar wind, welding arcs, the Earth's ionosphere.
- Track 12-1Fourth State of Matter
- Track 12-2Quasi -neutral
- Track 12-3Plasma in Tissue Engineering
- Track 12-4Atmospheric Plasma
Ultra-pure water contains by definition only H20, and H+ and OH- ions in equilibrium. Therefore, ultrapure water conductivity is about 0,054 us/cm at 25oC, also expressed as resistivity of 18, 3 MOhm. Ultrapure water production often has to be done in 2 steps. For example, from tap water or fresh groundwater, the water should first be demineralized by membrane filtration or ion exchange to reach the ultimate conductivity of 10 us/cm. The demineralized water is then processed through a high performance Mixed Bed or by Electro deionization. Ultra-pure water is mainly used in the semiconductor and pharmaceutical industry. Because of the continuing miniaturilisation in the semiconductor industry, the specifications become stricter every year. Ultrapure water is also utilized in the production of flat panel displays and photovoltaic panels, and in the pharmaceutical industry, it is critical for injection and for cleaning process equipment. The power industry is yet another user, employing ultrapure water to serve as feed water for steam boilers. The pressure membrane technologies of microfiltration, ultrafiltration, Nano filtration and reverse osmosis are the most versatile and, hence, most widely used as the lynchpin of most ultrapure water production systems. In particular, membrane technologies possess certain properties that make them unique when compared to other water treatment technologies. These include:
■ Continuous process, resulting in automatic and uninterrupted operation
■ Low energy utilization involving neither phase nor temperature changes
■ Modular design-no significant size limitations
■ Minimal moving parts with low maintenance requirements
■ No effect on form or chemistry of contaminants
- Track 13-1Membrane filtration
- Track 13-2Electrodionisation
- Track 13-3Microfiltration
- Track 13-4Membrane elements
- Track 13-5Applications in Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Companies
Materials science and engineering, involves the discovery and design of new materials. Many of the most pressing scientific problems humans currently face are due to the limitations of the materials that are available and, as a result, major breakthroughs in materials science are likely to affect the future of technology significantly. Materials scientists lay stress on understanding how the history of a material influences its structure, and thus its properties and performance. Material science plays an important role in metallurgy too. Powder metallurgy is a term covering a wide range of ways in which materials or components are made from metal powders. They can avoid, or greatly reduce, the need to use metal removal processes and can reduce the costs. Pyro metallurgy includes thermal treatment of minerals and metallurgical ores and concentrates to bring about physical and chemical transformations in the materials to enable recovery of valuable metals. A complete knowledge of metallurgy can help us to extract the metal in a more feasible way and can used to a wider range Extractive metallurgy is the practice of removing valuable metals from an ore and refining the extracted raw metals into a purer form. In order to convert a metal oxide or sulphide to a purer metal, the ore must be reduced physically, chemically, or electrolytically. Mining may not be necessary if the ore body and physical environment are conducive to leaching. Leaching dissolves minerals in an ore body and results in an enriched solution. The solution is collected and processed to extract valuable metals. Common engineering metals include aluminium, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, nickel, titanium and zinc. These are most often used as alloys. Much effort has been placed on understanding the iron-carbon alloy system, which includes steels and cast irons.
- Track 14-1Crystallography
- Track 14-2Aerospace and transport
- Track 14-3Advanced manufacturing
- Track 14-4Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light. For the industrial chemist, photochemistry is just one of the many means of producing chemical compounds or bringing them into reaction. However, it has some advantages over thermal, catalytic and other methods that immediately fascinate him. These include:
(1) Selective activation of individual reactants,
(2) Specific reactivity of electronically excited molecules,
(3) Low thermal load on the reaction system,
The main aim of preparative photochemistry is to reduce manufacturing costs for chemical products by introducing photochemical steps in the syntheses. Light-sensitive compounds have great technical significance in photography, reprography, and printing. Important applications have been also found in U.K.-curable paints, primers, and printing inks (4) exact control of radiation in terms of space, time and energy. Photo stabilizers are primarily used in plastics and man-made fibers. A Primary photochemical process of great theoretical and practical significance is luminescence. Photochemistry is an essential tool in both the manufacturing and the use of modern cars. Radiation curing is used as a very efficient, economically and ecologically attractive technology for the coating and bonding of many of the parts used in a car, and avoiding degradation of the coating due to photo induced processes during the foreseen service time is a key issue.
- Track 15-1Luminescence
- Track 15-2Grotthuss–Draper law and Stark-Einstein law
- Track 15-3Fluorescence and phosphorescence
- Track 15-4Organic Photo chemistry
- Track 15-5Inorganic and Organometallic Photo chemistry
With increasing competition worldwide, innovation remains crucial in finding new ways for the industry to satisfy its increasingly sophisticated, demanding and environmentally-conscious consumers. The products of the chemical industry can be divided into three categories: Basic chemicals, Speciality chemicals, Consumer chemicals. There have been breath-taking changes in the chemical industry over the last 10 years or so, not only in Europe and in the US but particularly in China, India, the rest of Asia and Brazil. The production of chemicals from petroleum (and increasingly from coal and biomass) has seen many technological changes and the development of very large production sites throughout the world. The chemical industry is a very important contributor to the wealth of a country. For example it contributes over 1% to the Gross National Product (GNP) of European countries, which is over 6% of the total GNP produced by all manufacturing industries. Generally personnel in the industry are among the most well rewarded of all manufacturing industries because the industry has the largest proportion of highly qualified people and generally it is the most productive.
- Track 16-1New concepts and Innovations
- Track 16-2Large-scale water collection of bioinspired cavity-microfibers
- Track 16-3Process Control
- Track 16-4Chemfluence
Polylactide (PLA) the most promising one of Biopolymers these are a type of plastics which is being manufactured from petrochemicals, generated from sustainable feed stocks such as sugar, starch or Cellulose. Till date, the use of biopolymers, includes the first generation PLA, has been limited by their Physical properties and relatively high cost to manufacture. Next generation biopolymers, are the Plastics component fabrication, Polysaccharides second generation PLA, are to be cheaper and to improve their performance and a wide variety of application to capture an increasing share of the various markets for Biopolymers. Innovations has already achieved significant success with its early investments its $1.5m investment in obesity drug developer return up to $22m, following its sale for $100m in 2013, while the sale of a small molecule drug discovery company, resulted in Innovations realizing $9.5m, a 4.7 return on investment. In year 2015, Innovations invested $14.0m in 20 ventures, helping to launch three new companies.
- Track 17-1Biodegradable Plastics
- Track 17-2Biodegradable Plastics
- Track 17-3Recycled Plastics
- Track 17-4Micro and Nano Blends Based on Natural Polymers
- Track 17-5Smart biomaterials
- Track 17-6Biomacromolecules and Biopolymers
Food manufacturing accounted for $738.5 billion (12.9 percent) of all U.S. manufacturing shipments in 2012, while beverages and tobacco products accounted for $142.5 billion (2.5 percent). Combined, these industries accounted for $881 billion (15.4 percent), forming the largest single industry within the manufacturing sector. Food and beverage producers are constantly looking for production optimization while achieving the highest levels of quality and compliance. The beverage manufacturing industry is made up of establishments that make either alcoholic or nonalcoholic beverages .The output of these industries is predominantly sold directly to consumers, so most people have an intuitive understanding of the processes and products associated with these manufacturers. Food and beverage producers are constantly looking for production optimization while achieving the highest levels of quality and compliance. Applications include Drinking water treatment, Boiler water treatment, Cooling water treatment, Ingredient water treatment, Corn wet milling, Gelatin Concentration, Juice processing, de-alcoholization, Whey protein concentration, Brine Clarification. It faces a confluence of challenges such as climate change, changes in food supply and demand, and imbalances in the governance of food production systems, food price volatility and food security.
- Track 18-1Food Safety: Prevention and Control
- Track 18-2Nanomaterials: applications in Food
- Track 18-3Food Microbes: Probiotics and Functional Foods
- Track 18-4Quality assurance methods
- Track 18-5Brine Clarification
Pharmaceutical chemistry is the study of drugs, and it involves drug development. This includes drug discovery, delivery, absorption, metabolism, and more. Pharmaceutical chemistry involves cures and remedies for disease, analytical techniques, pharmacology, metabolism, quality assurance, and drug chemistry. Studying pharmaceutical chemistry allows students to contribute to life-saving remedies, enhance the speed of delivery of new medications, and help others. Pharmaceutical chemistry also includes other branches of study such as pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and drug metabolism. These are important for learning the effects that drugs have on the body. Traditionally, pharmaceutical scientists work in lab environments where they discover and develop new drug therapies that can save lives and improve quality of life.
- Track 19-1Pharmacology
- Track 19-2Drug delivery and Targeting
- Track 19-3Metabolonomics of new pharmaceutical agents
- Track 19-4Genomics and Proteomics
- Track 19-5High performance liquid chromatography
Study of the structure, nomenclature, occurrence, synthesis and reactions of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives. The -OH group is the only group attached to a benzene ring is a phenol. Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids are some of the important classes of organic compounds containing carbonyl group. These are highly polar molecules. Therefore, they boil at higher temperatures than the hydrocarbons and weakly polar compounds such as ethers of comparable molecular masses The -OH group of phenols allows these molecules to form hydrogen bonds with one another. Amines are organic compounds which contain and are often actually based on one or more atoms of nitrogen. An organic compound with multiple amine groups is called a diamine, triamine, tetraamine and so forth, based on the number of amine groups (also called amino groups) attached to the molecule. The chemical formula for methylene diamine (also called diaminomethane), for example, would be as follows: H2N-CH2-NH2. Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids are widespread in plants and animal kingdom. Aldehydes and ketones are the simplest and most important carbonyl compounds. There are two systems of nomenclature of aldehydes and ketones.
1. Common Names 2.IUPAC Names. Some important methods for the preparation of aldehydes and ketones are as follows:
1. by oxidation of alcohols
2. By dehydrogenation of alcohols
3. From hydrocarbons
- Track 20-1Oxidation of alcohols
- Track 20-2Dehydrogenation of alcohols
- Track 20-3Hydrocarbons
- Track 20-4Neutralization reactions
Nutraceuticals are products, which other than nutrition are also used as medicine. A nutraceutical product may be defined as a substance, which has physiological benefit or provides protection against chronic disease. Pharmaceuticals are a product of scientific research that supports their claims for health improvement. Nutraceuticals are limited by the FDA as to what can and cannot appear in marketing for the product and specifically what must and must not appear on the label. Nutraceuticals, in contrast to pharmaceuticals, are substances, which usually have not patent protection. Both pharmaceutical and nutraceutical compounds might be used to cure or prevent diseases, but only pharmaceutical compounds have governmental sanction.
- Track 21-1Antioxidants
- Track 21-2Nutraceuticals Oxidative Stress
- Track 21-3Pharmaceuticals vs Nutraceuticals
While making potable water optimizing the performance of treatment chemicals and equipments can dramatically minimize costs and maximize return on investment helping to meet the most stringent water quality requirements. Raw water is natural water found in the environment and has not been treated, nor have any minerals, ions, particles or living organisms removed. Raw water includes rainwater, ground water, water from infiltration wells, and water from bodies like lakes and rivers. Treatment includes -
Reverse osmosis-Water molecules would spontaneously migrate through certain membranes that were separating a dilute solution from a concentrated solution. This phenomenon is called osmosis. They also noted that if pressure was added to the higher contaminant solution, this natural flow could be reversed. This reversal allows the contaminant solution to be concentrated further and allows purified water to be produced.
Conventional pre-treatment-Conventional treatment consists of the following unit processes: coagulation, flocculation, clarification, and filtration, and is typically followed by disinfection at full-scale.
Ultrafiltration-A simple procedure called "low pressure" ultrafiltration permits the clarification and disinfection of water in a single step. A membrane barrier acts like a filter for all particles over 10-20 nm in size: pollen, algae, bacteria, viruses, germs and organic molecules.
- Track 22-1Reverse Osmosis
- Track 22-2Ultrafiltration
- Track 22-3Turbidity and Health Concerns
- Track 22-4Conventional pre treatment
It deals with the separation, identification and quantification of chemical compounds. Chemical analyses can be qualitative, as in the identification of the chemical components in a sample, or quantitative, as in the determination of the amount of a certain component in the sample. The importance of it is due to its ability to check the quality of foods, drugs and other chemicals which we use in daily life. Most chemists routinely make qualitative and quantitative measurements. For this reason, some scientists suggest that analytical chemistry is not a separate branch of chemistry, but simply the application of chemical knowledge.1 In fact, you probably have performed quantitative and qualitative analyses in other chemistry courses. Analytical chemistry as the application of chemical knowledge ignores the unique perspective that analytical chemists bring to the study of chemistry. The craft of analytical chemistry is not in performing a routine analysis on a routine sample, which more appropriately is called chemical analysis, but in improving established analytical methods, in extending existing analytical methods to new types of samples, and in developing new analytical methods for measuring chemical phenomena. For example -All the packed foods we buy, medicines, chemicals, cosmetics undergo thorough quality test before being released into market.
- Track 23-1Qualitative and Quantitative analysis
- Track 23-2Gravimeter Analysis
- Track 23-3Differential Scanning Calorimetry
- Track 23-4Drug Resistance
Hazardous waste is generated by all sectors of Irish society, from large industry, healthcare to small businesses, households and farms. The collection, treatment, and disposal of waste material that, when improperly handled, can cause substantial harm to human health and safety or to the environment. Hazardous wastes are classified on the basis of their biological, chemical, and physical properties. These properties generate materials that are toxic, reactive, ignitable, corrosive, infectious, or radioactive. Toxic wastes are poisons, even in very small or trace amounts. They may have effects, causing death or violent illness, or they may have chronic effects, some are carcinogens causing cancer after many years of exposure. Reactive wastes are chemically unstable and react violently with air or water. They cause explosions or form toxic vapors. Infectious wastes include used bandages, hypodermic needles, and other materials from hospitals or biological research facilities. Radioactive wastes emit ionizing energy that can harm living organisms.
Hazardous waste is generally transported by truck over public highways. Only a very small amount is transported by rail, and almost none is moved by air or inland waterway. Hazardous waste can be treated by chemical, thermal, biological, and physical methods. Chemical methods include ion exchange, precipitation, oxidation and reduction, and neutralization. Among thermal methods is high-temperature incineration, which not only can detoxify certain organic wastes but also can destroy them. Special types of thermal equipment are used for burning waste in either solid, liquid, or sludge form. These include the fluidized-bed incinerator.
- Track 24-1Solidification and Stabilization
- Track 24-2Remedial Action
- Track 24-3Boilers and Industrial Furnaces
- Track 24-4Physical Chemical and Biological Treatment