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17th International Conference on Industrial Chemistry and Water Treatment, will be organized around the theme “”
Industrial Chemistry 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Industrial Chemistry 2018
Submit your abstract to any of the mentioned tracks.
Register now for the conference by choosing an appropriate package suitable to you.
- Track 1-1Effluent storage
- Track 1-2Removing efficiency of BOD
- Track 1-3Oxidation Ditch
- Track 1-4Trickling Filters
- Track 2-1 Biomedicaland Sensors
- Track 2-2Nonlinear Kerr effect
- Track 2-3 Mechanical exfoliation
- Track 2-4Neodymium magnets
Polymer science is an interdisciplinary area comprised of chemical, physical, engineering, processing and theoretical aspects. It also has enormous impact on contemporary materials science. Its goal is to provide the basis for the creation and characterization of polymeric materials and an understanding for structure/property relationships. Polymer science is of increasing importance for everyone's daily life. Many modern functional materials, gears, and devices have polymers as integral parts. Not surprisingly, roughly 30% of all scientists in the chemical industry work in the field of polymers.
- Track 3-1 Condensation Polymerization or Step-Growth Polymerization
- Track 3-2 Condensation Polymerization or Step-Growth Polymerization
- Track 3-3Polymer Rheology and Polymer Morphology
- Track 3-4Conducting Polymers
- Track 3-5Rubbers—Materials and Processing Technology
- Track 3-6Gasification
Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with chemical production and the manufacture of products through chemical processes. This includes designing equipment, systems and processes for refining raw materials and for mixing, compounding and processing chemicals to make valuable products. Chemical engineering involves managing plant processes and conditions to ensure optimal plant operation. Chemical reaction engineers construct models for reactor analysis and design using laboratory data and physical parameters, such as chemical thermodynamics, to solve problems and predict reactor performance.
- Track 4-1New concepts and Innovations
- Track 4-2New concepts and Innovations
- Track 4-3Large-scale water collection of bioinspired cavity-microfibers
- Track 4-4Process Control
- Track 4-5Chemfluence
- Track 4-6Chemical Engineering
- Track 5-1Biodegradable Plastics
- Track 5-2Recycled Plastics
- Track 5-3Micro and Nano Blends Based on Natural Polymers
- Track 5-4Smart biomaterials
- Track 5-5Biomacromolecules and Biopolymers
Industrial Chemistry is the branch of chemistry which applies physical and chemical processes both towards the transformation of raw materials into products that are of benefit to humans. Industrial chemists make use of their broad understanding of chemistry and environmental sustainability in areas like pharmaceutical companies, polymer manufacturing, petrochemical processing, food science, and manufacturing industries. The main areas of research and teaching are on the catalyst and process development, mechanical and thermal unit operations and process of chemical reaction engineering. It enables efficient production of basic, intermediate and end products. Industrial chemistry is part of the long chain in the design and manufacturing process. Industrial chemists deal with the ideas, the design, the testing, and prototyping of new industrial products. In order to design something entirely new to help solve the major problems of the world their essential skills are, in-depth knowledge and application of chemistry and creativity with chemicals. In a general sense, industrial chemists are involved in:
1.Safety and efficiency
2.Product development and innovation
4.Environment monitoring and control
5.Production plant design
- Track 6-1Organic Chemistry
- Track 6-2Inorganic Chemistry
- Track 6-3Physical Chemistry
- Track 6-4Analytical Chemistry
- Track 6-5Chemical Technology
Medicinal chemistry is a stimulating field as it links many scientific disciplines and allows for collaboration with other scientists in researching and developing new drugs. Themes include drug design, metabolism and toxicology with an understanding of synthetic organic chemistry. They also improve the processes by which existing pharmaceuticals are made. It deals with the facts of chemistry, pharmacoanalysis and the chemical analysis of compounds in the form of like small organic molecules such as insulin glargine, erythropoietin, and others. The four processes involved when a drug is taken are absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination or excretion (ADME). Drugs interact and bind to the binding sites through intermolecular bonds (ionic, h-bonds, van der Waals, Dipole- Dipole hydrophobic). The process how drug distribute and reach its target (ADME) and what will happen to the drug is pharmacokinetic. How the drugs interact with its target is known as pharmacodynamics. Careers in this field include -
1. Basic research into how various chemicals affect biological system
2. Drug development, including formulating drugs used to treat patients with diseases
3. Testing potential new bio-active compounds in patient populations
4.Developing guidelines for how new pharmaceuticals will be such as chemists at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) who review new drug applications from pharmaceutical companies and the processes by which the substances are made.
- Track 7-1Drug design
- Track 7-2Metabolism
- Track 7-3 Toxicology
- Track 7-4 Hit to lead and lead optimization
- Track 7-5Process chemistry and development
Electrochemistry is defined as the branch of chemistry that examines the phenomena resulting from combined chemical and electrical effects that cause electrons to move. This movement of electrons is called electricity, which can be generated by movements of electrons from one element to another in a reaction known as an oxidation- reduction ("redox") reaction. A reaction is classified as oxidation or reduction depending on the direction of electron transfer. The principles of cells are used to make electrical batteries. In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores chemical energy and makes it available in an electrical form. Electrochemistry is also vital in a wide range of important technological applications. For example, batteries are important not only in storing energy for mobile devices and vehicles, but also for load leveling to enable the use of renewable energy conversion technologies. This field covers -
Electrolytic processes - Reactions in which chemical changes occur on the passage of an electrical current.
Galvanic or voltaic processes - Chemical reactions that results in the production of electrical energy.
- Track 8-1 Redox reaction:Oxidation and Reduction reactions.
- Track 8-2Voltaic Cells-Galvanic Cells
- Track 8-3Standard electrode potential
- Track 8-4Corrosion and its prevention
- Track 8-5Gibbs Free Energy from EMF
Pharmaceutical chemistry is the study of drugs, and it involves drug development. This includes drug discovery, delivery, absorption, metabolism, and more. Pharmaceutical chemistry involves cures and remedies for disease, analytical techniques, pharmacology, metabolism, quality assurance, and drug chemistry. Studying pharmaceutical chemistry allows students to contribute to life-saving remedies, enhance the speed of delivery of new medications, and help others. Pharmaceutical chemistry also includes other branches of study such as pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and drug metabolism. These are important for learning the effects that drugs have on the body. Traditionally, pharmaceutical scientists work in lab environments where they discover and develop new drug therapies that can save lives and improve quality of life.
- Track 9-1Pharmacology
- Track 9-2Drug delivery and Targeting
- Track 9-3Metabolonomics of new pharamaceutical agents
- Track 9-4Genomics and Proteomics
- Track 9-5High performance liquid chromatography
It deals with the separation, identification and quantification of chemical compounds. Chemical analyses can be qualitative, as in the identification of the chemical components in a sample, or quantitative, as in the determination of the amount of a certain component in the sample. The importance of it is due to its ability to check the quality of foods, drugs and other chemicals which we use in daily life. Most chemists routinely make qualitative and quantitative measurements. For this reason, some scientists suggest that analytical chemistry is not a separate branch of chemistry, but simply the application of chemical knowledge.1 In fact, you probably have performed quantitative and qualitative analyses in other chemistry courses. Analytical chemistry as the application of chemical knowledge ignores the unique perspective that analytical chemists bring to the study of chemistry. The craft of analytical chemistry is not in performing a routine analysis on a routine sample, which more appropriately is called chemical analysis, but in improving established analytical methods, in extending existing analytical methods to new types of samples, and in developing new analytical methods for measuring chemical phenomena. For example -All the packed foods we buy, medicines, chemicals, cosmetics undergo thorough quality test before being released into market.
- Track 10-1Qualitative analysis
- Track 10-2Quantitative analysis
- Track 10-3Gravimeter Analysis
- Track 10-4Infrared Spectroscopy
- Track 10-5Differential Scanning Calorimetry
- Track 10-6Drug Resistance
Stereochemistry, bonding and reactivity deals mostly with transition metals, dealing with the geometric factors that affect multiple metal-metal bond strength, or delocalized bonding in M2X2 diamonds, M3X2 and M2X3cages.Â . The relationship between stereochemistry and spin state has led us to formulate simple rules to predict the geometries of four and six-coordinated transition metals. The reason that isomers are so important in drug design is that normally, only one particular isomer is effective in treating the condition. The branch of chemistry that is concerned with the spatial arrangements of atoms in molecules and with chemical and physical effects of these arrangements. Geometric Isomers are found in square planar and octahedral complexes. There are two geometric isomers possible for this composition when the coordination geometry is octahedral: cis and trans. The fac- isomer (short for "facial") gets its name because all three chlorides are coordinated on one face of the octahedron. The merisomer (short for "meridional“) has the three chloride ions coordinated in a plane that includes the metal ion.
- Track 11-1 Molecular chirality and enantiomers
- Track 11-2Transition Metal Complexes as Drugs
- Track 11-3Optical Isomerism
- Track 11-4Stereo chemistry of reactions of Transition metal-Carbon Sigma bonds
Study of the structure, nomenclature, occurrence, synthesis and reactions of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives. The -OH group is the only group attached to a benzene ring is a phenol. Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids are some of the important classes of organic compounds containing carbonyl group. These are highly polar molecules. Therefore, they boil at higher temperatures than the hydrocarbons and weakly polar compounds such as ethers of comparable molecular masses The -OH group of phenols allows these molecules to form hydrogen bonds with one another. Amines are organic compounds which contain and are often actually based on one or more atoms of nitrogen. An organic compound with multiple amine groups is called a diamine, triamine, tetraamine and so forth, based on the number of amine groups (also called amino groups) attached to the molecule. The chemical formula for methylene diamine (also called diaminomethane), for example, would be as follows: H2N-CH2-NH2. Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids are widespread in plants and animal kingdom. Aldehydes and ketones are the simplest and most important carbonyl compounds. There are two systems of nomenclature of aldehydes and ketones.
1. Common Names 2.IUPAC Names. Some important methods for the preparation of aldehydes and ketones are as follows:
1. by oxidation of alcohols
2. By dehydrogenation of alcohols
3. From hydrocarbons
- Track 12-1Oxidation of alcohols
- Track 12-2Dehydrogenation of alcohols
- Track 12-3Hydrocarbons
- Track 12-4Neutralization reactions
The alcohols are widely used as solvents and as intermediates for the synthesis of more complex substances. The simple ethers, ROR, do not have 0-H bonds, and most of their reactions are limited to the substituent groups. Alcohols are substantially less volatile, have higher melting points, and greater water solubility than the corresponding hydrocarbons. When alcohols react with a hydrogen halide, a substitution takes place producing an alkyl halide and water:
alcohol is converted into alkyl halide the reaction is carried in the presence of acid and halide ions and not at elevated temperatures. Halide ions are good nucleophiles and since halide ions are present in high concentration, most of the carbocations react with an electron pair of a halide ion to form a more stable species, the alkyl halide product. The overall result is an SN1 reaction.
Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides, alcohols and ethers
Ethanol reacts very slowly with methyl iodide to give methyl ethyl ether, but sodium ethoxide in ethanol solution reacts quite rapidly. In fact, the reaction of alkoxides with alkyl halides or alkyl sulfates is an important general method for the preparation of ethers, and is known as the Williamson synthesis.
- Track 13-1Spectroscopic properties of alcohol
- Track 13-2Nucleophilic Properties. Ether Formation
- Track 13-3Biological redox reactions
- Track 13-4Williamson ether synthesis
There’s a reason the “organo” comes first in “organometallic chemistry”—our goal is usually the creation of new bonds in organic compounds. The metals tend to just be along for the ride (although their influence, obviously, is essential). And the fact is that you can do things with organometallic chemistry that you cannot do using straight-up organic chemistry. The term "metalorganics" usually refers to metal-containing compounds lacking direct metal-carbon bonds but which contain organic ligands like Metal beta-diketonates, alkoxides, and dialkylamides are representative members of this class. In addition to the traditional metals, lanthanides, actinides, and semimetals, elements such as boron, silicon, arsenic, and selenium are considered to form organometallic compounds, e.g. organoborane compounds such as triethylborane (Et3B). Many complexes feature coordination bonds between a metal and organic ligands. The organic ligands often bind the metal through a heteroatom such as oxygen or nitrogen, in which case such compounds are considered coordination compounds. Organometallic compounds undergo several important reactions:
- Track 14-1Coordination compounds with organic ligands
- Track 14-2Quantifying ligand effects in high-oxidation-state metal catalysis
- Track 14-3 Gilman and Grignard reagents
- Track 14-4Oxidative addition and reductive elimination
- Track 14-5Catalysis
Surface and Colloid Chemistry provides a detailed analysis of its principles and applications and demonstrates how they relate to natural phenomena and industrial processes. The goal of the Division of Colloid and Surface Chemistry is to promote discovery, scholarship, and innovation in colloid, surface, interface, and nanomaterial’s chemistry as pursued by a global and multidisciplinary scientific community. The term dispersion is often used as a synonym of colloidal system. Colloid chemistry deals with matter in a state of very fine subdivision in which each particle has a high surface/volume ratio. The principles of surface chemistry therefore largely govern the special properties of colloids. The surface tension of a liquid can be defined as the work which must be performed to produce 1 sq.cm of new surface at constant temperature. Surface tension refers to the gas (usually air)/ liquid interface, the work required to produce 1 sq.cm of new surface at a liquid/liquid interface is usually termed the interfacial tension of the pair of liquids. Static surface tension - As a rule the fluid dispersions (emulsions, foams) are stabilized by adsorption layers of amphiphile molecules. These can be ionic and nonionic surfactants, lipids, proteins, etc. All of them have the property to lower the value of the surface (or interfacial) tension, s, in accordance with the Gibbs adsorption equation. If the surface of an equilibrium surfactant solution is disturbed (expanded, compressed, renewed, etc.), the system will try to restore the equilibrium by exchange of surfactant between the surface and the subsurface layer (adsorption–desorption). The change of the surfactant concentration in the subsurface layer triggers a diffusion flux in the solution.
- Track 15-1Surface Tension and Surface Activity
- Track 15-2Ion exchange resins
- Track 15-3Dynamic surface tension
- Track 15-4The Langmuir isotherm
- Track 15-5Types of adsorption
- Track 15-6Ionic surfactants
- Track 15-7Micelles
A clear trend exists towards diets that include more animal products such as fish, meat and dairy products, which in turn increase the demand for feed grains (FAO, 2007). There is also a growing use of agricultural products, particularly grains and oil crops, as bioenergy production feedstock. The role of agriculture in the process of development has been reappraised and re-valued from the point of view of its contribution to industrialization and its importance for harmonious development and political and economic stability. Agro-industry, i.e. the processing, preservation and preparation of agricultural production for intermediate and final consumption, performs a number of crucial functions that support development and poverty alleviation. It could cover a variety of industrial, manufacturing and processing activities based on agricultural raw materials as also activities and services that go as inputs to agriculture. There are a number of ways of classifying agro-based industries. Broadly these are classified as food and non-food industries. According to the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) agro-industry consists of: -
· Food and beverages
· Tobacco products;
· Paper and wood products
· Textiles, footwear and apparel
· Lather products
· Rubber products.
- Track 16-1Changes to the global agro-food economy
- Track 16-2Impacts of Processes of Agro-industrialization
- Track 16-3Labour productivity
- Track 16-4Agricultural products, processed food and other high- value Agrifood items
- Track 16-5Farm–agribusiness linkages
- Track 16-6Food-processing technologies
Medicinal chemistry in its most common practice—focusing on small organic molecules—encompasses synthetic organic chemistry and aspects of natural products and computational chemistry in close combination with chemical biology, enzymology and structural biology, together aiming at the discovery and development of new therapeutic agents. This sector includes chemicals used in variety of industries such as selenium dioxide as oxidising agent in preparation of API's selenium sulphide for antidandruff shampoos, sodium selenite anhydrous and pentahydrate in animal feed formulations. Discovery is the identification of novel active chemical compounds, often called "hits", which are typically found by assay of compounds for a desired biological activity. Initial hits can come from repurposing existing agents towards a new pathologic process. Hit to lead and lead optimization. Chemical modifications can improve the recognition and binding geometries (pharmacophores) of the candidate compounds, and so their affinities for their targets, as well as improving the physicochemical properties of the molecule that underlie necessary pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD), and toxicologic profiles (stability toward metabolic degradation, lack of geno- hepatic, and cardiac toxicities, etc.) such that the chemical compound or biologic is suitable for introduction into animal and human studies. The final synthetic chemistry stages involve the production of a lead compound in suitable quantity and quality to allow large scale animal testing, and then human clinical trials. This involves the optimization of the synthetic route for bulk industrial production, and discovery of the most suitable drug formulation. Industrial chemicals are used in researching and developing active drug substances and manufacturing bulk substances and finished pharmaceutical products. Organic and inorganic chemicals are raw materials, serving as reactants, reagents, catalysts and solvents. The use of industrial chemicals is determined by the specific manufacturing process and operations.
- Track 17-1 Drug synthesis
- Track 17-2Drug metabolism
- Track 17-3Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
- Track 17-4Pharmacognosy
- Track 17-5Clinical Trials
- Track 17-6 Pharmacology
Food manufacturing accounted for $738.5 billion (12.9 percent) of all U.S. manufacturing shipments in 2012, while beverages and tobacco products accounted for $142.5 billion (2.5 percent). Combined, these industries accounted for $881 billion (15.4 percent), forming the largest single industry within the manufacturing sector. Food and beverage producers are constantly looking for production optimization while achieving the highest levels of quality and compliance. The beverage manufacturing industry is made up of establishments that make either alcoholic or nonalcoholic beverages .The output of these industries is predominantly sold directly to consumers, so most people have an intuitive understanding of the processes and products associated with these manufacturers. Food and beverage producers are constantly looking for production optimization while achieving the highest levels of quality and compliance. Applications include Drinking water treatment, Boiler water treatment, Cooling water treatment, Ingredient water treatment, Corn wet milling, Gelatin Concentration, Juice processing, de-alcoholization, Whey protein concentration, Brine Clarification. It faces a confluence of challenges such as climate change, changes in food supply and demand, and imbalances in the governance of food production systems, food price volatility and food security.
- Track 18-1Food Safety: Prevention and Control
- Track 18-2Nanomaterials: applications in Food
- Track 18-3Food Biotechnology & Nutrition
- Track 18-4Food Microbes: Probiotics and Functional Foods
- Track 18-5 Quality assurance methods
- Track 18-6Brine Clarification
Water is widely used in industry, whether it is encountered as raw water, process water or waste water. Industrial water use is closely linked to the economy of a country. As GDP increases, so will industrial water consumption. The industrial sector is the second highest user of water after agriculture. India’s annual fresh water withdrawals were about 500 billion cubic meters and the Indian industry consumed about 10 billion cubic meter of water as process water and 30 billion cubic meters as cooling water. Composition of natural waters changes constantly due to processes of oxidation and reduction, blending of waters with different compositions, temperature alterations, ion exchange, precipitation, bacterial self-purification, and other natural factors. Three main approaches may be indicated in development of water supply systems:
2.Circulating(closed type water supply)
The first approach is characterized by great expenditure of fresh water and waste water is fully directed to the hydrographic system. This approach was typical of all manufacturing industry during the first half of the twentieth century and resulted in exhaustion of a number of water sources. The system of industrial water supply includes:
• preparation of source water for use in technological processes;
• collection and treatment of industrial wastewaters with the aim of purification and further utilization in water circulation systems or their disposal in the open hydrographic network;
• industrial and drinking water supply.
- Track 19-1Disinfection of water supply
- Track 19-2Hydrographs
- Track 19-3Disposal of residual industrial waste waters
- Track 19-4Ultraviolet irradiation
- Track 19-5Hydrographic system
Geochemistry is the branch of Earth Science that applies chemical principles to deepen an understanding of the Earth system and systems of other planets. Because radioactive isotopes decay at measurable and constant rates (e.g., half-life) that are proportional to the number of radioactive atoms remaining in the sample, analysis of rocks and minerals can also provide reasonably accurate determinations of the age of the formations in which they are found. Geochemistry generally concerns the study of the distribution and cycling of elements in the crust of the earth. Just as the biochemistry of life is centered on the properties and reaction of carbon, the geochemistry of Earth's crust is centered upon silicon. Also important to geochemistry is oxygen .Oxygen is the most abundant element on Earth. Together, oxygen and silicon account for 74% of Earth's crust. The eight most common elements found on Earth, by weight, are oxygen (O), silicon (Si), aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), potassium (K), and magnesium (Mg). Except in acid or siliceous igneous rocks containing greater than 66% of silica, known as felsic rocks, quartz is not abundant in igneous rocks. In basic rocks (containing 20% of silica or less) it is rare for them to contain as much silicon, these are referred to as mafic rocks. If magnesium and iron are above average while silica is low, olivine may be expected; where silica is present in greater quantity over ferromagnesian minerals, such as augite, hornblende, enstatite or biotite, occur rather than olivine. The effects of acid rain are of great concern to geologists not only for the potential damage to the biosphere, but also because acid rain accelerates the weathering process. Precipitation of this "acid rain" adversely affects both geological and biological systems.
- Track 20-1Felsic, intermediate and mafic igneous rocks
- Track 20-2Geochemistry of trace metals in the ocean
- Track 20-3Mineral constitution
- Track 20-4Formation of minerals to molecular interactions
It is the first process in the delivery of electricity to the consumers. Others processes include transmission, distribution, energy storage and recovery using pumped storage methods. Several fundamental methods exist to convert other forms of energy into electrical energy. The turboelectric, piezoelectric effect, and even direct capture of the energy of nuclear decay Betavoltaics are used in niche applications, as is direct conversion of heat to electric power in the thermoelectric effect. Electrochemistry is the direct transformation of chemical energy into electricity, as in a battery. The photovoltaic effect is the transformation of light into electrical energy, as in solar cells. Photovoltaic panels convert sunlight directly to electricity. There are mainly three conventional source of electric power generation, and they are thermal, hydel, and nuclear energy.
Thermal Power Generation- In thermal power plant coal or diesel is burnt to produce sufficient heat. This heat energy is utilized to produce high temperature and high pressure steam in the boiler.
Hydel Power Generation- The water head is used to rotate the rotor shaft of an alternator. Water head can be naturally available or it can be created.
Nuclear Power Generation- In a nuclear power station, Uranium235 is subjected to nuclear fission. In fission process, U235 is bombarded by a beam of neutrons. The collision of neutrons with the nucleus of U235 creates huge heat energy along with other neutrons. These newly created neutrons are called fission neutrons which again hit by other U235nuclear and create mare heat energy and other fission neutrons.
- Track 21-1Thermomechanical pulp
- Track 21-2Chemithermomechanical pulp
- Track 21-3Organosolv pulping
- Track 21-4Effluents from pulp mills
- Track 21-5Application of Combined Heat and Power (CHP)
A desalination plant essentially separates saline water into two streams: one with a low concentration of dissolved salts (the fresh water stream) and the other containing the remaining dissolved salts (the concentrate or brine stream). Water desalination processes separate dissolved salts and other minerals from water. Seawater desalination has the potential to reliably produce enough potable water to support large populations located near the coast. The most common desalination methods employ reverse-osmosis in which salt water is forced through a membrane that allows water molecules to pass but blocks the molecules of salt and other minerals.
Thermal desalination uses heat, often waste heat from plants or refineries, to evaporate and condense water to purify it. The cost is very high and so it cannot be afforded by everyone who needs it, but because the desalinisation technology is improving fast, so the costs are beginning to fall, making it more affordable to countries and islands that need it.
Desalination techniques are also being developed on a much smaller scale. Portable desalination kits are a prime example. Desalination is becoming more economically viable as the technology improves. Desalination plants can be provided in a wide range of outputs to cater for small isolated communities or to contribute substantially to water supplies for large cities and even for irrigation
- Track 22-1Vacuum distillation
- Track 22-2Multi-stage flash distillation
- Track 22-3Multiple-effect distillation
- Track 22-4Reverse osmosis and Nanofiltration:Leading Pressure driven membrane processes
- Track 22-5Electrodialysis and Electrodialysis Reversal
Osmosis is a natural phenomenon in which a solvent (usually water) passes through a semipermeable barrier from the side with lower solute concentration to the higher solute concentration side. To reverse the flow of water (solvent), a pressure difference greater than the osmotic pressure difference is applied as a result, separation of water from the solution occurs as pure water flows from the high concentration side to the low concentration side. Reverse osmosis membrane separations are, most importantly, governed by the properties of the membrane used in the process. These properties depend on the chemical nature of the membrane material (almost always a polymer) as well as its physical structure. Membranes occupy through a selective separation wall. Certain substances can pass through the membrane, while other substances are caught.
Membrane filtration can be used as an alternative for flocculation, sediment purification techniques, adsorption (sand filters and active carbon filters, ion exchangers), extraction and distillation. The choice of membrane depends upon the nature of the input of water and it is essential to be able to use the most suitable one in any particular set of circumstances.
- Track 23-1Drinking water production
- Track 23-2Lipo-Polysaccharide Endotoxin:Major concern in Waste water treatment
- Track 23-3Wastewater reclamation
- Track 23-4Concentration polarisation
- Track 23-5Feed Water
Hazardous waste is generated by all sectors of Irish society, from large industry, healthcare to small businesses, households and farms. The collection, treatment, and disposal of waste material that, when improperly handled, can cause substantial harm to human health and safety or to the environment. Hazardous wastes are classified on the basis of their biological, chemical, and physical properties. These properties generate materials that are toxic, reactive, ignitable, corrosive, infectious, or radioactive. Toxic wastes are poisons, even in very small or trace amounts. They may have acute effects, causing death or violent illness, or they may have chronic effects, some are carcinogens causing cancer after many years of exposure. Reactive wastes are chemically unstable and react violently with air or water. They cause explosions or form toxic vapors. Infectious wastes include used bandages, hypodermic needles, and other materials from hospitals or biological research facilities. Radioactive wastes emit ionizing energy that can harm living organisms.
Hazardous waste is generally transported by truck over public highways. Only a very small amount is transported by rail, and almost none is moved by air or inland waterway. Hazardous waste can be treated by chemical, thermal, biological, and physical methods. Chemical methods include ion exchange, precipitation, oxidation and reduction, and neutralization. Among thermal methods is high-temperature incineration, which not only can detoxify certain organic wastes but also can destroy them. Special types of thermal equipment are used for burning waste in either solid, liquid, or sludge form. These include the fluidized-bed incinerator.
- Track 24-1Solidification and Stabilization
- Track 24-2Remedial Action
- Track 24-3Incinerators
- Track 24-4Boilers and Industrial Furnaces
- Track 24-5Physical Chemical and Biological Treatment
Industrial boilers and steam raising plant are used extensively in many commercial, manufacturing and industrial processes. The control of boiler water pH and alkalinity levels are important issue affecting the operation and maintenance of industrial boiler systems and steam raising plant. The treatment and conditioning of boiler feed water must satisfy three main objectives:
1. Continuous heat exchange
3.Production of high quality steam
External treatment is the reduction or removal of impurities from water outside the boiler. In general, external treatment is used when the amount of one or more of the feed water impurities is too high to be tolerated by the boiler system.
Internal treatment can constitute the unique treatment when boilers operate at low or moderate pressure, when large amounts of condensed steam are used for feed water, or when good quality raw water is available.
At the elevated temperatures and pressures within a boiler, water exhibits different physical and chemical properties than those observed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Chemicals may be added to maintain pH levels minimizing water solubility of boiler materials while allowing efficient action of other chemicals added to prevent foaming, to consume oxygen before it corrodes the boiler, to precipitate dissolved solids before they form scale on steam-generating surfaces, and to remove those precipitates from the vicinity of the steam-generating surfaces
- Track 25-1External and Internal Treatment
- Track 25-2Phosphates-dispersants
- Track 25-3Natural and synthetic dispersants
- Track 25-4Oxygen scavengers
- Track 25-5Condensate Line Protection
- Track 25-6Polymer sludge conditioners
Water is used extensively as a highly efficient coolant in many commercial, manufacturing and industrial process activities where cooling is required. The water treatment of cooling towers is an integral part of process operations in many industries, with the possibility of productivity and product quality being adversely affected by scale, corrosion, fouling and microbiological contamination. In general, a basic cooling tower water treatment system typically includes some type of:
2. Filtration and/or ultrafiltration
3. Ion exchange/softening
5. Automated monitoring
Cooling towers are used widely due to their optimal cooling technology for industrial processes and HVAC applications. Water shortages combined with increased water usage have combined to decrease the availability and increase the cost of high quality makeup water for cooling tower systems. The accumulation of microbiological slimes, biofilm and general bio-fouling in cooling water systems reduces system efficiency, increases operating and maintenance costs, and raises risks to safety and health. The detrimental impact of metallic corrosion can be a significant issue that affects the operation and maintenance of open and closed cooling water systems.
- Track 26-1Biodispersants
- Track 26-2Cooling towers Silica Level
- Track 26-3Scale/Deposition control
- Track 26-4Biological control
Green water is caused by algae cells floating in the pond. If there is a lot of sunlight and your pond water is rich in nitrates algae will multiply rapidly. Green water is most effectively removed by using a UV Clarifier in conjunction with a filter, however sometimes you need to give things a boost by using an additional pond treatment. Algae are primitive plants that, via photosynthesis, combine water and carbon dioxide to form sugars for energy and growth. Algae produce oxygen, a useful by-product, but when sunlight is not available at night, they quickly respire. There are basically two types of pond algae:
Green Water: These single-celled organisms—which remain suspended in water—are so tiny, they pass through even the finest filter. If conditions are right, meaning there’s plenty of nutrients and sunlight, as many as five million algae cells per milliliter of pond water can be present.
String Algae (also known as “hair algae”): This filamentous species, which grows in long strands, adheres to rocks and waterfalls. They eventually tangle together, forming thick, unsightly mats that can double their weight within 24 hours.
The following are some tried-and-true methods that will not only help you treat algae, but also help prevent it –Add plants ,Water Treatments, Fish Feeding, Green Water Control: Ultraviolet (UV) Clarifiers, String Algae Control: Garden Hose, Hand, or Net, Consider water dyes to help as they block direct UV rays coming from sun. By twirling it around a bamboo cane and hauling it out you can achieve some control and there are products that will help to get rid of it.
- Track 27-1String Algae
- Track 27-2Fish Feeding
- Track 27-3Green Water Control: Ultraviolet (UV) Clarifiers
- Track 27-4Control amount of nitrates and phosphates
- Track 27-5Nutrients, algae and
While making potable water optimizing the performance of treatment chemicals and equipments can dramatically minimize costs and maximize return on investment helping to meet the most stringent water quality requirements. Raw water is natural water found in the environment and has not been treated, nor have any minerals, ions, particles or living organisms removed. Raw water includes rainwater, ground water, water from infiltration wells, and water from bodies like lakes and rivers. Treatment includes -
Reverse osmosis-Water molecules would spontaneously migrate through certain membranes that were separating a dilute solution from a concentrated solution. This phenomenon is called osmosis. They also noted that if pressure was added to the higher contaminant solution, this natural flow could be reversed. This reversal allows the contaminant solution to be concentrated further and allows purified water to be produced.
Conventional pre-treatment-Conventional treatment consists of the following unit processes: coagulation, flocculation, clarification, and filtration, and is typically followed by disinfection at full-scale.
Ultrafiltration-A simple procedure called "low pressure" ultrafiltration permits the clarification and disinfection of water in a single step. A membrane barrier acts like a filter for all particles over 10-20 nm in size: pollen, algae, bacteria, viruses, germs and organic molecules.
- Track 28-1Reverse osmosis
- Track 28-2Ultrafiltration
- Track 28-3Biofilm pre-treatment and Bio-diatomite Dynamic Membrane Reactor
- Track 28-4Turbidity and health concerns
- Track 28-5Conventional pre-treatment
The principal objective of wastewater treatment is generally to allow human and industrial effluents to be disposed of without danger to human health or unacceptable damage to the natural environment. The most appropriate wastewater treatment to be applied before effluent use in agriculture is that which will produce an effluent meeting the recommended microbiological and chemical quality guidelines both at low cost and with minimal operational and maintenance requirements. There are two wastewater treatment plants namely chemical or physical treatment plant, and biological wastewater treatment plant. Biological waste treatment plants use biological matter and bacteria to break down waste matter. Physical waste treatment plants use chemical reactions as well as physical processes to treat wastewater. The following is a step by step process of how wastewater is treated:
1. Wastewater Collection-Collection system are put in place by municipal administrations, to ensure waste water is collected and directed to a central point. This water is then directed to a treatment plant using underground drainage systems or by exhauster tracks owned and operated by business people.
2. Odor Control-Wastewater contains a lot of dirty substances that cause a foul smell over time. All odor sources are contained and treated using chemicals to neutralize the foul smell producing elements.
3. Screening-Screening involves the removal of large objects for example nappies, cotton buds, plastics, diapers, rags, sanitary items, nappies, face wipes, broken bottles or bottle tops that in one way or another may damage the equipment.
4. Primary Treatment-his process involves the separation of macrobiotic solid matter from the wastewater.
5. Secondary Treatment-Also known as the activated sludge process, the secondary treatment stage involves adding seed sludge to the wastewater to ensure that is broken down further.
7. Tertiary treatment- The tertiary treatment stage has the ability to remove up to 99 percent of the impurities from the wastewater. This produces effluent water that is close to drinking water quality.
- Track 29-1Phase separation
- Track 29-2Secondary treatment and Activated Sludge
- Track 29-3Phase separation
Alkenes contain at least one double bond. Alkynes contain at least one triple bond. Most of these types of hydrocarbons can exist with the same chemical formula in different form or chemical structure. When a compound has the same chemical formula but two possible structures, these two structures are called isomers. Alkenes are unsaturated since they have a double covalent carbon bond. Alkenes have the general formula CnH2n. Alkynes (acetylenes) are unsaturated encyclical hydrocarbons which contain one or more triple bonds between atoms of carbon. The general formula for alkynes is CnH2n-2
Aromatic hydrocarbons contain the 6-membered benzene ring structure that is characterized by alternating double bonds. Thus, they have formulas that can be drawn as cyclic alkenes, making them unsaturated. Benzene, C6H6, is the simplest member of a large family of hydrocarbons, called aromatic hydrocarbons. Aromatic compounds more readily undergo substitution reactions than addition reactions; replacement of one of the hydrogen atoms with another substituent will leave the delocalized double bonds intact.
- Track 30-1Saturated and Unsaturated hydrocarbons
- Track 30-2Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Cancer
- Track 30-3Geometric Isomers
- Track 30-4Stereochemistry
- Track 30-5Element of unsaturation
- Track 30-6Cis and trans isomers
It aims to promote all aspects of product formulation from initial product concept, through the development of prototypes, to market testing and manufacture, across the diverse markets impacted. Its application in the areas of lubricants, inks, coatings, food & beverages, pharmaceuticals, cosmetic, household and personal care products. Agrochemical products and adjuvants are of vital importance in agriculture, to protect food and fiber crops from weeds, insect pests and diseases, in order to feed and clothe the growing world population. The soundest scientific approach is the understanding of the relationships between the components of a formulation and its properties (such as the stability of an emulsion or a suspension) in terms of molecular theory. The source of the oldest formulations is probably pharmacy, in which the skills associated with the development and execution of recipes has grown into an independent discipline, galenics. In other fields of chemistry, particularly industrial chemistry, formulations are amongst a company’s most closely guarded trade secrets on account of their often considerable economic value
- Track 31-1Emulsions - Properties and Production
- Track 31-2Microemulsions, Vesicles, and Liposomes
- Track 31-3Pharmaceutical Technology
- Track 31-4Pharmaceutical Technology
- Track 31-5Agricultural Formulations
- Track 31-6Pigments and Dyes
One of the most promising and well-developed environmental applications of nanotechnology has been in water remediation and treatment where different nanomaterials can help purify water through different mechanisms including adsorption of heavy metals and other pollutants, removal and inactivation of pathogens and transformation of toxic materials into less toxic compounds It highlights the uses of nanotechnology to purify water, including separation and reactive media for water filtration, as well as nanomaterial’s and nanoparticles for use in water bioremediation and disinfection. the most extensively studied nanomaterial, zero-valent metal nanoparticles (Ag, Fe, and Zn), metal oxide nanoparticles (TiO2, ZnO, and iron oxides), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and nanocomposites are discussed:
1.Silver Nanoparticles-Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are highly toxic to microorganisms and thus have strong antibacterial effects against a wide range of microorganisms, including viruses , bacteria , and fungi. As a good antimicrobial agent, silver nanoparticles have been widely used for the disinfection of water.
2.Iron Nanoparticles-various zero-valent metal nanoparticles, such as Fe, Zn, Al, and Ni, in water pollution treatment have drawn wide research interest. With a moderate standard reduction potential, Nano-zero-valent Fe or Zn holds good potential to act as reducing agents relative to many redox-labile contaminants. Therefore, zero-valent iron nanoparticles have been the most extensively studied zero-valent metal nanoparticles.
3. TiO2 Nanoparticles-Owing to its high photocatalytic activity, reasonable price, photo stability, and chemical and biological stability TiO2 is the most exceptional photocatalyst to date. The large band gap energy of TiO2 requires ultraviolet (UV) excitation to induce charge separation within the particles.
4. ZnO Nanoparticles-ZnO NPs are environment-friendly as they are compatible with organisms, which make them suitable for the treatment of water and wastewater. Besides, the photocatalytic capability of ZnO NPs is similar to that of TiO2 NPs because their band gap energies are almost the same.
- Track 32-1Zero-Valent Metal Nanoparticles
- Track 32-2Metal Oxides Nanoparticles
- Track 32-3Adsorption & Separation
- Track 32-4Antibacterial activity
- Track 32-5Photocatalysis
- Track 32-6Dendrimer
The method by which a drug is delivered can have a significant effect on its efficacy. To minimize drug degradation and loss, to prevent harmful side-effects and to increase drug bioavailability and the fraction of the drug accumulated in the required zone, various drug delivery and drug targeting systems are currently under development. Attempts are being made to develop therapeutic proteins for cancer, hepatitis, and autoimmune conditions, but their clinical applications are limited, except in the cases of drugs based on erythropoietin, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, interferon-alpha, and antibodies, owing to problems with fundamental technologies for protein drug discovery. Technologies profiled include those used for biomarker and target discovery such as high throughput screening, signal transduction, micro array, RNAi, metabolomics, toxicogenomics, biosensors and nanotechnology. Colloidal drug carrier systems such as micelle solutions, vesicle and liquid crystal dispersions, as well as nanoparticle dispersions consisting of small particles of 10–400 nm diameter show great promise as drug delivery systems. Lead discovery includes -
1.Choosing disease and drug target.
2. Identifying a bioassay.
3. Finding a lead compound.
4. Isolation and purification.
5. Structure determination
7.Identification of pharmacophore.
- Track 33-1Choosing Disease and Drug Target
- Track 33-2Identification of Pharmacophore
- Track 33-3Lead Compounds and SAR
- Track 33-4High throughput screening
- Track 33-5 Computer-aided drug design
Petroleum geology is the study of origin, natural occurrence, movement, gathering and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels, especially oil or petroleum. Petroleum geology is a branch of stratigraphy that deals with the relationship between rock layers and the way they can move or shift. The movement of rock layers can affect the site of petroleum deposits, well as the removal of the petroleum. The major disciplines of include Source rock analysis, Basin analysis, exploration stage, Appraisal Stage, Production stage, Reservoir Analysis. Petroleum geologists study and explore the oil deposits and oil production. Necessary parameters for polymer processing includes-
1.Flow or deformation
2.Transfer of heat and thermal behavior
3.Transfer of mass
there are a variety of different processing methods used to convert resins into finished products. Some include: Extrusion Profile and Sheet extrusion, Pipe extrusion, Cast film extrusion, Blown film extrusion. Thermoforming is a method of manufacturing custom plastic enclosures by preheating a flat sheet of plastic and bringing it into contact with a mold whose shape it takes. This can be done by vacuum, pressure and or direct mechanical force.
- Track 34-1Olefins and Aromatics
- Track 34-2Monomer vs. Polymer
- Track 34-3 Fluid catalytic cracking
- Track 34-4Polymers in Crude Oil Refining
- Track 34-5Plasticization of Polymers with Supercritical Fluids
White Biotechnology can be regarded as Applied Bio catalysis, with enzymes and microorganisms, aiming at industrial production from bulk and fine chemicals to food and animal feed additives. Bio catalysis has many attractive features in the context of Green Chemistry: mild reaction conditions (physiological pH and temperature), environmentally compatible catalysts and solvent (often water) combined with high activities and chemo-, regio- and stereo selectivities in multifunctional molecules. White Biotechnology supports new applications of chemicals produced via biotechnology. Environmental aspects of this interdisciplinary combination include: Use of renewable feedstock Optimization of biotechnological processes by means of: New "high performance" microorganisms On-line measurement of substrates and products in bioreactors Alternative product isolation, resulting in higher yields, and lower energy demand. The use of plant-based resources is one of the foundations of the concept of “green chemistry”. Many green chemistry processes make use of white biotechnology tools, and light will be shed on the importance of this technological synergy within the context of industry and factories in the future. In fact, biotechnology is a way of using biomass or its waste material renewably to produce molecules with high added value for different applications, ranging from pharmaceuticals, agro-food, and cosmetics to plastics, materials and energy.
- Track 35-1Biocatalysis
- Track 35-2Waste minimization
- Track 35-3Use of renewable resources or agro industrial residues
- Track 35-4 Renewable feed stock Optimization
- Track 35-5New “high performance” microorganisms
- Track 35-6Spiro-connected heterocycles
Ultra-pure water contains by definition only H20, and H+ and OH- ions in equilibrium. Therefore, ultrapure water conductivity is about 0,054 us/cm at 25oC, also expressed as resistivity of 18, 3 MOhm. Ultrapure water production often has to be done in 2 steps. For example, from tap water or fresh groundwater, the water should first be demineralized by membrane filtration or ion exchange to reach the ultimate conductivity of 10 us/cm. The demineralized water is then processed through a high performance Mixed Bed or by Electrodionisation. Ultra-pure water is mainly used in the semiconductor and pharmaceutical industry. Because of the continuing miniaturilisation in the semiconductor industry, the specifications become stricter every year. Ultrapure water is also utilized in the production of flat panel displays and photovoltaic panels, and in the pharmaceutical industry, it is critical for injection and for cleaning process equipment. The power industry is yet another user, employing ultrapure water to serve as feed water for steam boilers. The pressure membrane technologies of microfiltration, ultrafiltration, Nano filtration and reverse osmosis are the most versatile and, hence, most widely used as the lynchpin of most ultrapure water production systems. In particular, membrane technologies possess certain properties that make them unique when compared to other water treatment technologies. These include:
■ Continuous process, resulting in automatic and uninterrupted operation
■ Low energy utilization involving neither phase nor temperature changes
■ Modular design-no significant size limitations
■ Minimal moving parts with low maintenance requirements
■ No effect on form or chemistry of contaminants
- Track 36-1Membrane filtration
- Track 36-2Electrodionisation.
- Track 36-3Microfiltration
- Track 36-4Membrane elements
- Track 36-5Applications in Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Companies
Materials science and engineering, involves the discovery and design of new materials. Many of the most pressing scientific problems humans currently face are due to the limitations of the materials that are available and, as a result, major breakthroughs in materials science are likely to affect the future of technology significantly. Materials scientists lay stress on understanding how the history of a material influences its structure, and thus its properties and performance. Material science plays an important role in metallurgy too. Powder metallurgy is a term covering a wide range of ways in which materials or components are made from metal powders. They can avoid, or greatly reduce, the need to use metal removal processes and can reduce the costs. Pyro metallurgy includes thermal treatment of minerals and metallurgical ores and concentrates to bring about physical and chemical transformations in the materials to enable recovery of valuable metals. A complete knowledge of metallurgy can help us to extract the metal in a more feasible way and can used to a wider range Extractive metallurgy is the practice of removing valuable metals from an ore and refining the extracted raw metals into a purer form. In order to convert a metal oxide or sulphide to a purer metal, the ore must be reduced physically, chemically, or electrolytically. Mining may not be necessary if the ore body and physical environment are conducive to leaching. Leaching dissolves minerals in an ore body and results in an enriched solution. The solution is collected and processed to extract valuable metals. Common engineering metals include aluminium, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, nickel, titanium and zinc. These are most often used as alloys. Much effort has been placed on understanding the iron-carbon alloy system, which includes steels and cast irons.
- Track 37-1Crystallography
- Track 37-2Renewable and Sustainable Energy
- Track 37-3Aerospace and transport
- Track 37-4Advanced manufacturing
Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light. For the industrial chemist, photochemistry is just one of the many means of producing chemical compounds or bringing them into reaction. However, it has some advantages over thermal, catalytic and other methods that immediately fascinate him. These include:
(1) Selective activation of individual reactants,
(2) Specific reactivity of electronically excited molecules,
(3) Low thermal load on the reaction system,
The main aim of preparative photochemistry is to reduce manufacturing costs for chemical products by introducing photochemical steps in the syntheses. Light-sensitive compounds have great technical significance in photography, reprography, and printing. Important applications have been also found in U.K.-curable paints, primers, and printing inks (4) exact control of radiation in terms of space, time and energy. Photo stabilizers are primarily used in plastics and man-made fibers. A Primary photochemical process of great theoretical and practical significance is luminescence. Photochemistry is an essential tool in both the manufacturing and the use of modern cars. Radiation curing is used as a very efficient, economically and ecologically attractive technology for the coating and bonding of many of the parts used in a car, and avoiding degradation of the coating due to photo induced processes during the foreseen service time is a key issue.
- Track 38-1Luminescence
- Track 38-2Grotthuss–Draper law and Stark-Einstein law
- Track 38-3Fluorescence and phosphorescence
- Track 38-4Organic Photo chemistry
- Track 38-5 Inorganic and Organometallic Photo chemistry
Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds. Inorganic chemistry is also closely related to other disciplines such as materials sciences, physical chemistry, thermodynamics, earth sciences, mineralogy, crystallography, spectroscopy etc. The periodic table is structured in such a way as to group together elements whose structures follow certain patterns and so have particular properties in common. Inorganic chemistry is not only about those elements - but also about how they react and the compounds they form. Key topics in the field of inorganic chemistry includes Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry, Basic (General) Types of Inorganic Chemistry Reactions, Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds, Geochemistry, Extraction (incl. Mining) of Inorganic Chemicals, Bioinorganic Chemistry, Synthetic Inorganic Chemistry, Industrial Inorganic Chemistry. Inorganic Chemistry Topics identifiable from the Periodic Table include-
Groups I and II
- Track 39-1Element Denotation
- Track 39-2Fibers and Plastics
- Track 39-3Geochemistry
- Track 39-4Organometallic compounds
- Track 39-5Catalysis
A new paradigm has emerged for drug development and patient care. It is fusion of traditional and modern medicine or system or reductionist thinking. The difference between something personalized and participatory medicine. The truth is that modern medicine is desperately short of new treatments. It takes years for a new drug to get through the research and development pipeline to manufacture and the cost is enormous. Estimates suggest up to 80 per cent of the population has tried a therapy such as acupuncture or homeopathy and a survey conducted earlier this year found that 74 per cent of us medical students believe that western medicine would benefit by integrating traditional or alternative therapies and practices. Example –Artemisinin, which is extracted from Artemisia Annua or Chinese sweet wormwood, is the basis for the most effective malaria drugs the world has ever seen. But making traditional medicine truly mainstream — incorporating its knowledge into modern healthcare and ensuring it meets modern safety and efficacy standards — is no easy task and is far from complete. There are many examples of traditional remedies used by people. Willow bark was used to treat headaches and fever. Quinine was used to treat malaria.
- Track 40-1Personalized Medicine
- Track 40-2Naturopathy and Acupuncture as a secondary medical system
- Track 40-3Drug resistance by misuse of medications
- Track 40-4Modernizing Traditions
- Track 40-5Protection and piracy
The transition metals are the metallic elements that serve as a bridge, or transition, between the two sides of the table. They have partially filled d orbitals. Properties of transition metals 1. Metals 2. Almost all: HARD, STRONG, High m.p., b.p. 3. Conduct heat & electricity 4. Form Alloys 5. Show variable oxidation states 6. At least one of the ions & compounds colored. 7. Form paramagnetic species because of partially filed shells. Most transition metals form more than one oxidation state. Transition metals demonstrate a wide range of chemical behaviors. Some transition metals are strong reducing agents, whereas others have very low reactivity. The most abundant transition element in the Earth’s solid crust is iron, which is fourth among all elements and second (to aluminum) among metals in crustal abundance. The elements titanium, manganese, zirconium, vanadium, and chromium also have abundances in excess of 100 grams (3.5 ounces) per ton. Some of the most important and useful transition elements have very low crustal abundances—e.g., tungsten, platinum, gold, and silver.
- Track 41-1Variable oxidation state
- Track 41-2Co Ordination numbers
- Track 41-3Ligands
- Track 41-4Variable oxidation state
- Track 41-5Early and Late transition metals