Geochemistry,Surface and Colloid Chemistry

Geochemistry is that the branch of global Science that applies chemical principles to deepen an understanding of the globe system and systems of other planets.  Because radioactive isotopes decay at measurable and constant rates (e.g., half-life) that are proportional to the number of radioactive atoms remaining in the sample, analysis of rocks and minerals can also provide reasonably accurate determinations of the age of the formations in which they are found. Geochemistry generally concerns the study of the distribution and cycling of elements with in the crust of the planet. Oxygen is the most abundant element on Earth. The eight most common elements found on Earth, by weight, are oxygen (O), silicon (Si), aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), calcium (CA), sodium (Na), potassium (K), and magnesium (Mg). Except in acid or siliceous igneous rocks containing greater than 66% of silica, called as felsic rocks, quartz isn’t abundant in igneous rocks.

  • Felsic, intermediate and mafic igneous rocks
  • Geochemistry of trace metals in the ocean
  • Mineral constitution
  • Formation of minerals to molecular interactions

Colloid and Surface Chemistry is to develop discovery, scholarship, and innovation in colloid, surface, interface, and nanomaterial’s chemistry as pursued by a worldwide and multidisciplinary scientific community. The term dispersion is generally used as a synonym of colloidal system. Colloid chemistry deals with matter in a state of very fine subdivision in which each particle has a high surface/volume ratio. The principles of surface chemistry therefore largely govern the special properties of colloids. The surface tension of a liquid can be defined as the work which must be performed to produce 1 sq.cm of new surface at constant temperature. Surface tension refers to the gas (usually air)/ liquid interface, the work required to produce 1 sq.cm of new surface at a liquid/liquid interface is usually termed the interfacial tension of the pair of liquids. Static surface tension - As a rule the fluid dispersions (emulsions, foams) are stabilized by adsorption layers of amphiphile molecules. These can be ionic and non-ionic surfactants, lipids, proteins, etc. All of them have the property to lower the service of the surface (or interfacial) tension, s, in accordance with the Gibbs adsorption equation. If the surface of an equilibrium surfactant solution is disturbed (expanded, compressed, renewed, etc.), the system will try to restore the equilibrium by exchange of surfactant between the surface and the subsurface layer (adsorption–desorption). The change of the surfactant concentration in the subsurface layer triggers a diffusion flux in the solution.

  •  Surface Tension and Surface Activity
  •  Ion exchange resins
  •  Dynamic surface tension
  •  The Langmuir isotherm
  •  Ionic surfactants

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