Chemistry of Alkyl Halides, Alcohols,Ethers & Pharmaceuticals

The alcohols are widely used as solvents and as intermediates for the synthesis of more complex substances. The simple ethers, ROR, don’t have 0-H bonds, and most of their reactions are limited to the substituent groups. When alcohols react with a hydrogen halide, a substitution takes place producing an organic compound and water. Alcohol is converted into alkyl halide the reaction is carried in the presence of acid and halide ions and not at elevated temperatures. Halide ions are good nucleophiles and since halide ions are present in high concentration, most of the carbonations react with an electron pair of a halide ion to form a more stable species, the alkyl halide product. The overall result is an SN1 reaction.

Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides, alcohols and ethers:

Ethanol reacts very slowly with methyl iodide to forms methyl ether, but sodium ethoxide in ethanol solution reacts quite rapidly. In fact, the reaction of alkoxides with alkyl halides or alkyl sulphates is an important general method for the preparation of ethers, and is known as the Williamson synthesis.

Spectroscopic properties of alcohol:

  • Nucleophilic Properties. Ether Formation
  • Biological redox reactions
  • Williamson ether synthesis

Medicinal chemistry in its universal practice—focusing on small organic molecules—encompasses synthetic chemistry and aspects of natural products and computational chemistry in close combination with chemical biology, enzymology and structural biology, together aiming at the finding and development of recent therapeutic agents. This sector includes chemicals utilized in kind of industries for e.g.  Selenium dioxide as oxidising agent in preparation of API's selenium sulphide for antidandruff shampoos, sodium selenite anhydrous and pentahydrate in animal feed formulations. Discovery is that the identification of novel active chemical compounds, often called "hits", which are typically found by assay of compounds for a desired biological activity. Initial hits can come from repurposing existing agents towards an advanced pathological process. Hit to lead and lead optimization. This involves the optimization of the synthetic route for bulk industrial production, and discovery of the all most all suitable drug formulation. Organic and inorganic chemicals are raw materials, serving as reactants, reagents, catalysts and solvents. The use of industry chemicals is decided by the specific manufacturing process and operations.

  •  Drug synthesis
  •  Drug metabolism
  •  Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
  •  Clinical Trials
  •  Pharmacology

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