Organic Acids, Amines, Esters and Phenols

Study of the structure, nomenclature, occurrence, synthesis and reactions of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives. The -OH group is the only group attached to a benzene ring is a phenol. Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids are some of the important classes of organic compounds containing carbonyl group. These are highly polar molecules. Therefore, they boil at higher temperatures than the hydrocarbons and weakly polar compounds such as ethers of comparable molecular masses The -OH group of phenols allows these molecules to form hydrogen bonds with one another. Amines are organic compounds which contain and are often actually based on one or more atoms of nitrogen. An organic compound with multiple amine groups is called a diaminetriaminetetraamine and so forth, based on the number of amine groups (also called amino groups) attached to the molecule. The chemical formula for methylene diamine (also called diaminomethane), for example, would be as follows: H2N-CH2-NH2. Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids are widespread in plants and animal kingdom. Aldehydes and ketones are the simplest and most important carbonyl compounds. There are two systems of nomenclature of aldehydes and ketones.
1. Common Names   2.IUPAC Names. Some important methods for the preparation of aldehydes and ketones are as follows:
1. by oxidation of alcohols
2. By dehydrogenation of alcohols
3. From hydrocarbons
 

  • Oxidation of alcohols
  • Dehydrogenation of alcohols
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Neutralization reactions

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