Chemistry of Transition Elements

The transition metals are the metallic elements that serve as a bridge, or transition, between the two sides of the table. They have partially filled d orbitals. Properties of transition metals 1. Metals 2. Almost all: HARD, STRONG, High m.p., b.p. 3. Conduct heat & electricity 4. Form Alloys 5. Show variable oxidation states 6. At least one of the ions & compounds colored. 7. Form paramagnetic species because of partially filed shells. Most transition metals form more than one oxidation state. Transition metals demonstrate a wide range of chemical behaviors. Some transition metals are strong reducing agents, whereas others have very low reactivity. The most abundant transition element in the Earth’s solid crust is iron, which is fourth among all elements and second (to aluminum) among metals in crustal abundance. The elements titanium, manganese, zirconium, vanadium, and chromium also have abundances in excess of 100 grams (3.5 ounces) per ton. Some of the most important and useful transition elements have very low crustal abundances—e.g., tungsten, platinum, gold, and silver.

  • Variable oxidation state
  • Co Ordination numbers
  • Ligands
  • Early and Late transition metals

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